Smoking prevalence and eating disorders are intertwined in the human psyche. Plenty of scientists have noticed this, and done some exploration, but conclusions about the relationship are far from solid. A multi-author meta-analysis with ties to 15 institutions wanted to determine exactly how prevalent smoking is among people with eating disorders (ED), as compared to the general population. Idle curiosity was not the motive. Together, the two lifestyles add up to one big problem, namely, an important public health issue.
The authors started out knowing already that “Cigarette smoking is associated with severe mental illness including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and with morbidity and mortality.” But what about eating disorders? They wrote,
There appears to be a longstanding belief that nicotine suppresses appetite, and smoking has been shown to increase resting metabolic rate, which is why smoking is used for weight control. In individuals with ED, the perceived benefits of nicotine for weight-control and temporary stress reduction may outweigh any concerns about the long-term harms of smoking.
But… this holds true only if they have one of two specific problems, and not the third:
People with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa are significantly more likely to be life-time smokers than healthy controls, which is not the case for anorexia nervosa.
Isn’t that odd, or at the very least, counterintuitive? Because out in the world, AN patients get up to some pretty desperate tricks just to shrink a few more fat cells. It seems like it would be the most natural thing in the world, for anorexics to turn to smoking. Yet, apparently they do not. Concerning this and other matters, the paper reiterates a useful concept that is not heard often enough: “The relationship… appears to be complex.”
But wait! Another study, very close in time, contradicted that one. According to the Department of Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina…
[…] subjects with eating disorders of any type, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder, had increased rates of smoking and higher nicotine dependence compared to controls.
That is what it says, “disorders of any type, including anorexia nervosa.” This is why there are lots of laboratories and lots of trials, so results can be checked again and again. The big takeaway from this study was that tobacco use and eating disorders do not just happen to coincide once in a while, but hang out together on a fairly regular basis.
Unless the patient’s smoking and eating problems are treated comprehensively and simultaneously, failure can be predicted. Serious rehab costs a king’s ransom. It is said that “many” treatment programs offer support to those with co-occurring conditions, but that may be overly optimistic. For most Americans, the more pressing question is whether an insurance plan offers the same support.
The news gets even worse. The “smoke your way to slimness” trope appears to be based on a false belief. This paper says,
The idea that cigarette smoking is helpful in controlling body weight has been part of popular culture for many decades, dating back to 1930s advertisements that suggested women could smoke to help curb cravings for sweets.
Michelle Lippy of EatingDisorderHope.com offers a handy checklist for the person who is trying hard to quit cigarettes without bringing in overeating as a replacement. The name of the game is mindfulness. Interrogate yourself like a concerned friend or a skillful therapist, and figure out what the real problem is. Try some of the other suggestions on the page. None of them could possibly hurt.
Your responses and feedback are welcome!
Source: “The association between smoking prevalence and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” SGUL.AC.UK, May 2016
Source: “When Cigarette Smoking is Used as an Appetite Suppressant,” EatingDisorderHope.com, 05/07/17
Source: “How to Avoid Falling into Using Food to Replace Tobacco,” EatingDisorderHope.com
Photo credit: Photos by Chloe Muro on Visualhunt/CC BY-ND